• G.I.Sunahara, G.Lotufo, R.G.Kuperman, J.Hawari
  • Издательство: CRC
  • ISBN: 084932839X
  • Год издания: 2009
  • Кол.страниц: 336
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 1.7 Mb
An international meeting of defense ministries and department representatives from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States was held in Edinburgh, Australia, on February 23–25, 2004, under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP). At this meeting, the Conventional Weapons Group (WPN) Technical Panel 4 (TP-4) for Energetic Materials and Propulsion agreed that a project “Development of Environmental Threshold Values for Defense Sites Contaminated with Energetic Materials” be conducted to promote the data acquisition and sharing of ecotoxicological information to address environmental problems related to energetic materials (EMs). The first objective of this international collaboration involved the development of environmental threshold concentrations for explosives and propellants. These criteria were needed for the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of sites contaminated with EMs, that is, to know “how clean is clean.” Although the choice of approach and the use of ERA tools may differ from country to country, the assurance of quality and direction of ecotoxicological research were recognized as key concerns shared by the scientific community.
  • Вейганд-Хильгетаг
  • Издательство: М.: "Химия"
  • Год издания: 1968
  • Кол.страниц: 944
  • Язык: русский
  • Формат: DJVU
  • Размер: 16,78 Мб
Книга посвящена методам синтеза органических соединений различных классов. По охвату материала она представляет собой сжатую, но достаточно полную энциклопедию материалов синтеза. Эта уникальная в мировой литературе книга является прекрасным справочником, с помощью которого можно выбрать наиболее удобную реакцию для получения нужного вещества.
  • Donald Rosato, Dominick Rosato
  • Издательство: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
  • ISBN: 1856174506
  • Год издания: 2004
  • Кол.страниц: 1092
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 80.5 Mb
The text is organized and written with useful information in the World of Reinforced Plastics to provide a source and reference guide for fabricator, mold maker, material supplier, engineer, maintenance person, accountant, plant manager, testing and quality control individual, cost estimator, sales and marketing personnel, new venture type, buyer, user, educator/trainer, workshop leader, librarian/information provider, lawyer, consultant, and others. It will be useful for those using reinforced plastic (RP) composites as well as those contemplating their use. People with different interests will gain knowledge by focusing on a subject and interrelate across subjects that they have or do not have familiarity. Information and data presented includes some important history, detailed up dates, and what is ahead.
  • Elisabetta Comini, Guido Faglia, Giorgio Sberveglieri
  • Издательство: Springer
  • ISBN: 0387096647
  • Год издания: 2009
  • Кол.страниц: 346
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 6.8 Mb
Gas sensor technology has advanced remarkably during the past few decades and is becoming an essential technology. Many gas sensors are now commercially available and researchers are making efforts, thanks to pioneering novel ideas, to develop next-generation gas sensors, having all the necessary requirements, such as small size, low production costs and power consumption. This book covers all gas sensor topics, a research field with an increasing interest in the last few years due to the demands of reliable, inexpensive and portable systems for environmental monitoring, indoor air quality, food quality control and many other applications. The goal of this book is to provide a critical assessment of the new trends in the gas sensor field, by describing the working principle and the applications related to the different types of sensors and paying attention to the recent impact of nanotechnology on the field.
  • Fritz Vogtle, J.F.Stoddart, M.Shibasaki
  • Издательство: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH
  • ISBN: 3527299785
  • Год издания: 2000
  • Кол.страниц: 400
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 14.16 Mb
Dwelling momentarily on the words Stimulating Concepts in Chemistry conjures up more than one line of thought. One is “Concepts in Chemistry” that are stimulating in themselves. Another is how “Concepts in Chemistry” can be stimulated at the interfaces with the life sciences and with materials science. These are powerful undercurrents that provide the changing circumstances for the creative developments in chemistry through – in many instances – the dreams and imaginations of intelligent and welltrained young men and women entering the profession as researchers at the graduate student and postdoctoral levels. Those academic, government, and industrial scientists in mid-career and beyond, who have demonstrated their creativity in articles, communications, papers, and reviews in the scientific literature – and from the lecterns in giving research seminars and named lectures in a variety of different settings, as well as from the podiums in presenting plenary talks and award lectures at society meetings and international symposia – are certainly in a position to commit their accomplishments and experiences to print, often with the direct involvement of their industrious and enthusiastic young colleagues.
  • Steven M.Bachrach
  • Издательство: Wiley
  • ISBN: 0471713422
  • Год издания: 2007
  • Кол.страниц: 498
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 22.9 Mb
This book tells the story of just how difficult it is to adequately describe real chemical systems using quantum mechanics. Although quantum mechanics was born in the mid-1920s, it took many years before rigorous solutions for molecular systems appeared. Hylleras2 and others3,4 developed nearly exact solutions to the single electron diatomic molecule in the 1930s and 1940s. But reasonable solutions for multi-electron multi-atom molecules did not appear until 1960, with Kolos’s5,6 computation of H2 and Boys’s7 study of CH2. The watershed year was perhaps 1970, with the publication by Bender and Schaefer8 on the bent form of triplet CH2 (a topic of Chapter 4) and the release by Pople’s group of Gaussian-70,9 the first full-featured quantum chemistry computer package that was used by a broad range of theorists and nontheorists. So, in this sense, computational quantum chemistry is really only some four decades old.
  • Steve Mitchell
  • Издательство: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 0748402454
  • Год издания: 1996
  • Кол.страниц: 236
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 1.9 Mb
Sulfur has fascinated people for a long time. Sulfurous smells frequently accompanied lightning, elevating it to empyrean status; a fiery means by which the wrath of the gods was manifest on earth. Indeed, the destruction of the twin cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, thought to be sited just south of the Dead Sea, was purported to be mediated by brimstone and fire, turning a once-fertile plain into a barren wilderness. Such brimstone, or ‘burning stone’ may have been exploited by man in another sulfurous form, hewn from the depths of the earth. Realgar, bright red arsenic disulfide, which crumbles to yellow orpiment on exposure to light, and produces intense blue fire when oxidized with nitre, is a strong candidate for an ingredient of the mysterious ‘Greek Fire’ of Constantinople and the ancient world.
  • Larry L.Barton, W.Allan Hamilton
  • Издательство: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521854857
  • Год издания: 2007
  • Кол.страниц: 558
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 5.1 Mb
Recognition of the biological nature of sulphate reduction in natural environments, and identification of the bacterial species involved dates to the latter part of the nineteenth century, and the seminal work of such giants of the early days of microbiology as Beijerinck andWinogradsky. The central role of environmental studies in highlighting the issues to be addressed and the problems to be solved, has remained to this day a constant theme in microbiological analyses of the sulphate reducers. The modern era of such analyses, however, can be said to date from the period around 1960 when the demonstrations by Postgate and Peck, respectively, of the presence of cytochromes and of phosphorylation linked to anaerobic respiration in sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), fundamentally altered our view of the biochemical nature of these organisms and, in particular, of their mechanisms of energy conservation.
  • Wolfgang Hummel, Giorgio Anderegg, Linfeng Rao, Ignasi Puigdomenech, Osamu Tochiyama
  • Издательство: Elsevier B.V.
  • ISBN: 0444514023
  • Год издания: 2005
  • Кол.страниц: 1133
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 59.94 Mb
The need to make available a comprehensive, internationally recognised and qualityassured chemical thermodynamic database that meets the modelling requirements for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems prompted the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) to launch in 1984 the Thermochemical Database Project (NEA TDB) and to foster its continuation as a semi-autonomous project known as NEA TDB Phase II in 1998. The RWMC assigned a high priority to the critical review of relevant chemical thermodynamic data of inorganic species and compounds of the actinides uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, as well as the fission product technetium. The first four books in this series on the chemical thermodynamics of uranium, americium, neptunium and plutonium, and technetium originated from this initiative.
  • Sonja Krause, Herbert M.Clark, James P.Ferris, Robert L.Strong
  • Издательство: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
  • ISBN: 0120734613
  • Год издания: 2002
  • Кол.страниц: 836
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 14.0 Mb
The predecessor to this book originated in the 1970s as notes to a junior/senior level course in "Chemistry of the Environment" that the authors developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in response to the interest in environmental concerns developing at that time. The present volume is an updated and expanded version of the original book published in 1978 and used ever since. Major changes in environmental problems have occurred in the years since the publication of the first edition, including the ozone and global warming concerns, the nuclear power plant meltdown at Chernobyl in 1986, and the world's worst oil spills in Kuwait and the Persian Gulf in 1991.
  • McMurry Fay
  • Издательство: Prentice Hall
  • ISBN: 0131402080
  • Год издания: 2003
  • Кол.страниц: 1070
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 72.39 Mb
For full-year general chemistry courses taken by biology, premedical, science, and engineering majors. McMurry/Fay's Chemistry focuses on visualizing and thinking to achieve try understanding. The text teaches the basics of solving problems using its trademark clear discussions and new art-enhanced format. The text moves students beyond rote quantitative problem solving, encouraging them to visualize and think about a problem before beginning to solve it; it conveys the key concepts being discussed to help students truly understand the chemistry by using unique, proven features. The clean, interesting writing style talks directly to students with a minimum of distractions. Molecular illustrations are abundant and are placed where they are referenced for maximum effectiveness with students. The well-integrated McMurry/Fay media program includes the IRCD, PH GradeAssist, a CW/CD suite and more.
  • T.R.Crompton
  • Издательство: E & FN Spon
  • ISBN: 0419243607
  • Год издания: 2000
  • Кол.страниц: 928
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 4.0 Mb
The presence of concentrations of organic substances in water is a matter of increasing concern to the water industry, environmentalists and the general public alike from the point of view of possible health hazards presented to both human and animal life, represented by domesticated and wild animals and bird and fish life. This awareness hinges on three facts: the increasing interest by the scientist and the public alike in matters environmental, an increased usage of organic materials in commerce coupled with the much wider variety of organic substances used nowadays, and finally, the availability of analytical methods sensitive enough to determine very low concentrations of these substances, the presence of which we formerly were unaware.
  • Guo-Qiang Chen (ed.) / Гуо-Кьянг Чен
  • Издательство: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-03286-8
  • Год издания: 2010
  • Кол.страниц: 453
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 20.2 Мб
The investigation and development of plastics synthesized by bacteria is receiving great attention also due to the raising petroleum prices and many environmental concerns related to plastic pollution. Recent results and studies of the properties and various applications of bio-based plastics are presented in this volume. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a biodegradable compound, is treated in several chapters: PHAs as energy and intracellular carbon storage compounds, the metabolic engineering of PHA producers, the development of tailor-made PHAs including uncommon monomers, microbial PHA production from waste raw materials, PHA polyesters produced by both wild-type and recombinant bacteria and the production of medium-chain-length PHAs in pseudomonads. Further microbial plastics discussed are lactic acid and its polymer polylactic acid (PLA), succinic acid and its polymer polybutylene succinate (PBS), ethylene from ethanol and its polymer polyethylene, 1,3-propandiol as well as poly(p-phenylene) (PPP).

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Выпуск серии "Монографии по микробиологии" посвящен исследованиям и разработке пластмасс методом синтезирования бактерий. Тема является актуальной с учётом повышения цен на нефть и экологических проблем, связанных с пластиковым загрязнением.
  • P.L.Herrling
  • Издательство: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0125468202
  • Год издания: 1997
  • Кол.страниц: 171
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 12.6 Mb
The excitatory effect of glutamate and aspartate on central nervous system neurons described in the early 1960s (Curtis and Watkins, 1960; Krnjevic and Phillis, 1963) initiated a massive research effort aimed at proving these compounds as important neurotransmitters. During the 1980s, glutamate gained the status of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Receptors were classified as N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors, based on electrophysiological studies (Hicks et al., 1978; Davies et al., 1979; Watkins and Evans, 1981; McLennan and Liu, 1982). NMDA receptors are stimulated most potently by NMDA itself. Currents activated by NMDA receptors are carried by Na § K § and Ca 2§ (Dingledine, 1983; MacDermott et al., 1986). The non-NMDA receptors were later divided into three groups, t~- amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, kainate receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors, based on the preferred agonists, AMPA, kainate, and glutamate (for a review, see Watkins et al., 1990). AMPA and kainate receptors are ion channel coupled mainly Na § channels, whereas metabotropic glutamate receptors mediate responses via G-protein-coupled second messengers.
  • James BeMiller, Roy Whistler
  • Издательство: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0127462759
  • Год издания: 2009
  • Кол.страниц: 900
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 8.87 Mb
Work towards production of the third edition of Starch: Chemistry and Technology was begun by Professor Roy L. Whistler and myself, but shortly thereafter Professor Whistler was unable to continue with the project. I was pleased to be able to see this edition through to completion. Many developments have occurred in the world of starch chemistry, genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and applications since the second edition was published in 1984. This edition, like the previous two editions, covers the isolation processes, properties, functionalities and uses of the most commonly used starches, viz., normal maize/corn, waxy maize, high-amylose maize, cassava (tapioca), potato and wheat starch, with emphases on those aspects of production, properties and uses that are unique to each; but not in single chapters.