• P.M.Jordan
  • Издательство: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0444892850
  • Год издания: 1991
  • Кол.страниц: 323
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 16.24 Mb
The study of the structure and function of tetrapyrrolic compounds has excited the interests of organic chemists, biochemists, botanists and other biologists for more than a hundred years. The structures of most naturally occurring porphyrins were first elucidated by the efforts of Hans Fischer, and great progress was made in our knowledge of chlorophyll by Stoll and Willstatter by applying the best current methods of organic chemistry. The next major advance was made by biochemists who used newly available isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to tackle the formation of porphyrins in biological systems. This was started by the discovery by Shemin and Rittenberg that, of all the amino acids, glycine specifically supplied the nitrogen atoms of protoporphyrin IX. This led to the elucidation of one of the major pathways for the synthesis of 5-aminolaevulinic acid, and ultimately to the origin of all the atoms in protoporphyrin IX. During this period conclusive evidence was also produced that chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll are formed in a series of reactions in which protoporphyrin IX is anessential intermediate.
  • Aravamudan S.Gopalan, Chien M.Wai, Hollie K.Jacobs
  • Издательство: An American Chemical Society Publication
  • ISBN: 0841238367
  • Год издания: 2003
  • Кол.страниц: 496
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 24.3 Mb
Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-C02) with its moderate critical constants, nonflammable nature and low cost provides an attractive alternative for replacing organic solvents traditionally used in chemical manufacturing processes. Minimizing liquid waste generation, easy separation of solutes and fast reaction rates are some of the advantages of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technology over conventional solvent extraction methods. The solvation strength of supercritical C02 can be tuned by changing the density of the fluid phase, thus selective extraction and dissolution of compounds may be achieved in SFE processes. Because C02 is not regulated by the US EPA as a volatile organic compound, C02-based SFE processes are environmentally acceptable. The CO2 used in SFE is produced by other industrial processes (e.g. fermentation processes), therefore the gas vented into the atmosphere from the SFE processes does not contribute to the "green house" effect.
  • Reza Sadeghbeigi
  • Издательство: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • ISBN: 0884152898
  • Год издания: 2000
  • Кол.страниц: 385
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 13.5 Mb
The first edition of this book was published nearly five years ago. The book was well received and the positive reviews were overwhelming. My main objective of writing this second edition is to provide a practical "transfer of experience" to the readers of the knowledge that I have gained in more than 20 years of dealing with various aspects of the cat cracking process. This second edition fulfills my goal of discussing issues related to the FCC process and provides practical and proven recommendations to improve the performance and reliability of the FCCU operations.
  • John Regalbuto
  • Издательство: CRC
  • ISBN: 0849370884
  • Год издания: 2007
  • Кол.страниц: 490
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 13.58 Mb
Catalysis is vital to the world’s economy and standard of living, yet relatively little attention is paid to optimizing catalytic materials through rational methods of preparation. More and more we hear the call to “transform the art of catalyst preparation into a science.” A robust answer to that call is the first chapter-themed book devoted to catalyst synthesis, Preparation of Solid Catalysts (Ertl, Knozinger, and Weitkamp, Eds., Wiley-VCH, 1999). This excellent compendium of materials and preparation methods contains material now almost a decade old. I hope that Catalyst Preparation: Science and Engineering can contribute to worldwide efforts in catalyst preparation science. I suggest that these efforts require a substantially different and complementary focus from traditional catalysis. Along traditional paths there is much excellent progress with state of the art analytical and computational methods to obtain structurefunction relationships: correlations of the atomic-scale physical and chemical makeup of catalytic materials to their reactivity. This research tells us why a particular catalyst works well or poorly, and in the best computational cases, precisely which catalytic material should be prepared and with what atomic arrangement.
  • Г.М. Жаркова, Э.Е. Петухова
  • Издательство: Химия
  • ISBN: 5-7245-0406-5
  • Год издания: 1993
  • Кол.страниц: 320
  • Язык: русский
  • Формат: DJVU
  • Размер: 6,0 Мб
Рассмотрены теоретические основы аналитической химии. Описаны практические занятия и примеры типовых расчетов, лабораторные работы, техника и условия выполнения аналитических реакций. Приведена кислотно-щелочная схема анализа катионов.
  • James Speight
  • Издательство: McGraw-Hill Professional
  • ISBN: 0071432205
  • Год издания: 2005
  • Кол.страниц: 1623
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 34.82 Mb
A standard reference for chemists for 70 years, this new Sixteenth Edition features an enormous compilation of facts, data, tabular material, and experimental findings in every area of chemistry.Included in this massive compendium are listings of the properties of approximately 4,400 organic and 1,400 inorganic compounds. This Sixteenth Edition offers 40% new or extensively revised content and starting with this edition, the author includes equations that allow users to calculate important values such as temperature and pressure.
  • Коллектив
  • Издательство: Эксмо
  • Год издания: 2008
  • Кол.страниц: 1000
  • Язык: русский
  • Формат: ISO, NRG
  • Размер: 33МВ
  • Автор: o78
Единый Государственный Экзамен - ЕГЭ 2008 - это уникальная программа , с помощью которой Вы легко подготовитесь к ЕГЭ (единому государственному экзамену) по всем предметам.
Программа ЕГЭ 2008 просто неоценима для учеников старших классов, которые собираются сдавать ЕГЭ в 2009 году.
С программой ЕГЭ 2008 эффективность подготовки возрастает в несколько раз, а затраты и время на эту подготовку значительно уменьшаться.
  • Hua Li
  • Издательство: Springer
  • ISBN: 3642023673
  • Год издания: 2009
  • Кол.страниц: 373
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 16.67 Mb
This is the first monograph of its kind, where a comprehensive and systematic description of modeling and simulation of the smart polymer hydrogels in BioMEMS environment is provided. It will cover the development of the models in form of nonlinear coupled partial differential governing equations for the smart hydrogels. Further, benchmark results, for simulation and prediction of responsive behaviour of the smart hydrogels to solution pH, externally applied electric voltage, environmental temperature, glucose/carbohydrates and salt concentration/ionic strength that are basic stimuli in common BioMEMS devices, are also documented. Finally, it is written in as simple a manner as possible, such that it will make informative and easy reading for the expert, and concurrently it can serve as a rich reference source for a graduate student intending to work in this area.
  • Hilda Butler
  • Издательство: Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • ISBN: 0751404799
  • Год издания: 2000
  • Кол.страниц: 820
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 37.16 Mb
A Cosmetic: Any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips, and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view to exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, or changing their appearances and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition. The legal regulations cover all the products named in this book whether classed as toiletries or cosmetics. The reason for a new edition of Poucher's volume on cosmetics is that during the years that have intervened since the last one there have been important developments, not only in the cosmetic industry but in cosmetic science, which cover the research in maintaining standards of quality in the development and regulation of the marketing of safe, stable products which the consumer can use with confidence. Young chemists using this new volume and benefiting from the information on cosmetic science and facts about the industrial side of marketing cosmetics must wonder who the writer was whose opus is being revised and enlarged for the tenth time.
  • Коллектив
  • Издательство: Руссобит-М
  • Год издания: 2003
  • Кол.страниц: 1000
  • Язык: русский
  • Формат: ISO, NRG
  • Размер: 652МВ
  • Автор: o78
Диск предназначен для старшеклассников и абитуриентов, он содержит полный курс химии за 8-11 классы. Но здесь, в отличие от учебников, этот материал изложен доступно и интересно, без лишней информации. Содержание основано на тщательном анализе программ вступительных экзаменов по химии большинства российских ВУЗов, а также конкретных экзаменационных заданий. Программа поможет систематизировать знания по химии, вспомнить забытые факты, не загружая бесполезной информацией. Предстоящие экзамены – больше не проблема!
  • Некрашевич И.
  • Издательство: Питер
  • ISBN: 978-5-91180-491-6
  • Год издания: 2008
  • Кол.страниц: 304
  • Язык: русский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 1.7 mb
Химия кажется вам сложным и непонятным предметом? Вы не знаете, как решать химические задачи, составлять уравнения реакций, строить формулы? Репетитор по химии, который вы держите в руках, поможет решить эти проблемы.
  • David R. Lide
  • Издательство: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 0849304873
  • Год издания: 2006-2007
  • Кол.страниц: 2608
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 77,5 Мб
For more than 90 years, researchers around the world have relied on the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics for authoritative, up-to-date data. This year will be no exception. Many of the most heavily used tables in the book receive major updates and expansions, most notably:
  • Злотников Э.Г.
  • Издательство: Питер
  • ISBN: 978-5-388-00519-9
  • Год издания: 2008
  • Кол.страниц: 192
  • Язык: русский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 1.26 mb
Справочник содержит все необходимые сведения по теоретическим основам, неорганической (химии элементов) и органической химии. Последний раздел справочника посвящен решению расчетных химических задач, в приложении приведены таблицы и схемы справочного характера. Пособие адресовано школьникам и абитуриентам, оно может использоваться преподавателями химии средних школ, гимназий, лицеев и колледжей.
  • Guneri Akovali
  • Издательство: Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd
  • ISBN: 1847350828
  • Год издания: 2007
  • Кол.страниц: 327
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 1.1 Mb
Plastics and rubbers are two very different, important materials in this modern age that are needed and used a great deal in our everyday life, both in the indoors and the outdoors of our living spaces. However, there is still, controversy almost all the time, about the use of certain ones and hence there is somewhat of a misconception surrounding the use of these materials, with certain beliefs and scare stories about their possible negative effects on human health; i.e., the belief that any form of PVC use can cause cancer. However, today, it is known that it is not PVC itself, but its monomer, vinyl chloride, and certain special additives incorporated with it (i.e., certain phthalates used as plasticisers), which are responsible for these negative effects. And the reality is such that, PVC is being used as blood bags in medical applications successfully, with no problems. Hence, the separation line of ‘whether something is toxic and harmful to health’ or ‘not’, (and if it is, under which conditions) is a very critical issue and therefore,
  • Sergey V.Krivovichev
  • Издательство: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199213208
  • Год издания: 2009
  • Кол.страниц: 323
  • Язык: английский
  • Формат: PDF
  • Размер: 11.9 Mb
Inorganic oxysalts represent one of the most important and widespread groups of inorganic compounds. They constitute more than half of the mineral species known today, they form in the environment around us, their structure and properties determine a wide range of natural and technological processes. This book deals with the crystallography of inorganic oxysalts, i.e. with a description of the organization of atoms in their crystal structures. The world of inorganic oxysalts is so diverse that a systematic and adequate description of this diversity seems to be almost impossible. The imagination and knowledge of structural crystallographers are very often restricted to their own objects of study. They work out the structure solution (sometimes easy, sometimes diffi cult), produce crystallographic information fi les (CIF) and leave the structure aside.